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IGBT will be replaced by silicon carbide! Battery energy density has exceeded 300Wh/kg
Datong Silicon Carbide learned that on December 16, Ouyang Minggao, executive vice chairman of the China Electric Vehicles Association of 100, introduced the new trend of my country’s new energy vehicle technology development in Beijing.
1. Battery energy density exceeds 300Wh/kg. In terms of power batteries, my country’s goal is to achieve 300Wh/kg energy density by 2020 to achieve competition with fuel vehicles. The specific energy of the high-nickel ternary anode and silicon-carbon anode batteries developed by CATL has reached 304Wh/kg. The industrialization will be realized next year and the products will be put on the market. In terms of high-power power batteries, the technical indicators of high-specific-power and long-life battery cells developed by Mongly are better than existing domestic and foreign products to meet the needs of plug-in buses. Judging from the current situation, our country’s battery has a slight advantage in specific energy, and its cycle performance is equivalent to that of foreign countries. Nowadays, Chinese batteries have gone international on a large scale. In addition to CATL and BYD, Funeng has also received orders from Mercedes-Benz, which fully demonstrates my country’s industrial advantages.
2. Silicon carbide is about to replace IGBT in driving motors. The first is the motor controller. We all know that motor controllers are expensive, and most of the core components, IGBTs, rely on imports, such as Infineon’s products. However, this situation has been greatly improved this year. In 2018, about 40% of IGBTs came from Chinese companies, such as BYD, so the key core device of IGBT has been overcome. In addition, silicon carbide will soon be replaced by IGBT. Silicon carbide is a more advanced power electronic chip used as a controller. The frequency can be very high, the efficiency can be very high, and the volume can be very small. The volumetric power density can reach 100 kilowatts per liter, which is about 70%-80% less than it is now. Independent controllers have also been developed in China, and there are already four or five teams in the country doing industrialization. The controller used in Tesla Model 3 uses silicon carbide material. BYD also announced that it will be replaced by silicon carbide in all aspects in 2023. It is estimated that IGBT will be replaced by silicon carbide in all aspects in 2025. One of the advantages of this is driving efficiency. It will increase by a few percentage points, and the second volume will decrease by about 70%-80%. The use of silicon carbide controllers can increase the specific power of the motor by greatly increasing the speed of the motor. The motor speed cannot be too high, because the switching frequency of the controller increases after too high, the loss is relatively large, and the motor efficiency decreases. Silicon carbide has the advantage of low loss at high frequencies, so that the specific power of the motor can be greatly improved. Now the domestic motor speed has reached 15,000 rpm, and efforts are being made to achieve 20,000 rpm. With reference to the US Department of Energy’s 2025 target, the power density of the motor is 50 kW/liter, the silicon carbide controller is 100 kW/liter, and the total volume of a 100-kilowatt motor and controller is 3 liters. Of course, there is a problem, which is to match the high-speed ratio reducer of the high-speed motor. This is a direction that our country needs to work hard on.
3. Reducing power consumption is an eternal theme. In terms of the development of pure electric vehicles, the traditional 12-meter bus has a large curb weight of about 11 tons. After electrification, the weight of the battery will increase, and the whole vehicle will be nearly 13 tons. There has been a major breakthrough recently. The curb weight has been reduced to 9 tons, which is 4 tons less than the original 13 tons and 2 tons lighter than diesel passenger cars. This is a significant technological advancement. There is also the problem of heating in the car in winter. Especially in the northeast, the temperature of minus 30 degrees limits the sales of pure electric vehicles. Now through the use of heat pump air conditioning technology, such as SAIC, it has used heat pump air conditioning in the latest products, which can reduce the 30% electric heating loss to only 10%, and protect the vehicle outside to minus 20 degrees, and the vehicle can reach 20 degrees. From the perspective of the development of pure electric vehicles at home and abroad, the proportion of domestic pure electric vehicles with a cruising range of more than 300 kilometers has reached 81%, and the energy density of the battery system of 140Wh/kg has become a mainstream product. Our problem now is that the power consumption per 100 kilometers is still too high, and there is still a gap compared with the advanced level of more than 10 degrees per 100 kilometers in foreign countries. We need to further reduce power consumption. Reducing power consumption is an eternal theme.
4. Fuel cell vehicles still need to reduce platinum loading. Regarding fuel cell vehicles, the fuel cell industry is very hot this year. On the one hand, everyone recognizes the strategic technological status of fuel cells. The strategic nature of fuel cells is not only embodied in automobiles. As the whole of hydrogen fuel cells, fuel cells are the cutting-edge technology of the energy revolution. They are not only used in automobiles, but more likely to be commercial vehicles, trains, ships, warships, power generation, etc. aspect. In addition, the best way for centralized renewable energy to store energy is to turn it into hydrogen and then transport it away through natural gas pipelines. This is its strategic significance. From the perspective of vehicles, a core issue and eternal theme of fuel cells is to reduce platinum loading. Everyone knows that fuel vehicles also use catalysts, such as national 4 emissions, national 5 emissions, and national 6 emissions. About 0.1 g/kw catalyst is used. This is the platinum carrier used by the highest standard of fuel vehicles, so our fuel cell goal is this goal. Products already in production, such as Toyota’s fuel cell system is 0.2g/kW, and the current domestic fuel cell system is probably at this level. Of course, the core of China’s fuel cell industry chain is that the industrial chain is not sound enough. On the one hand, it must be independent research and development, and on the other hand, it must attract the global industrial chain to China. Everyone knows that all these parts and components related to electric vehicles have come to China. Therefore, the key for us now is to build the industrial chain. The establishment of the industrial chain requires the entry of large enterprises. This time we are pleased to see that FAW and Dongfeng are now beginning to make efforts in fuel cells. In addition, there are membranes and carbon paper on the catalyst. The combination of the catalyst membrane and carbon paper is the membrane rp graphite electrode suppliers. There is still some gap with foreign countries, and the domestic market share is about 40%. In addition, at the engine level, our high-speed air compressors need to further reduce costs, and the cost of hydrogen storage bottles must also be greatly reduced. The current cost of hydrogen storage bottles is still high.
5. Plug-in hybrid vehicle technology still has advantages. In terms of hybrid power, my country’s hybrid power has the advantage of plug-in hybrid power, and plug-in hybrid power models have pure electric mileage of more than 50 kilometers, and will reach 70 kilometers in the future. In the end, it will be 90 kilometers. Because Chinese cars are generally driven in cities, with a pure electric range of 50-70 kilometers, the fuel is basically not used, and fuel consumption can be saved by 80%. The other is the cost. You can make a little money if you save 80%, but if the cost of the vehicle’s power system is much higher than that, it won’t work. Now we have a new technology, that is, instead of dual motors, only one motor is used. We use one motor and one controller. In addition, we can now meet the requirements of plug-in hybrid single-clutch systems. Compared with foreign dual-motor dual-clutch systems, we can save eight or nine thousand yuan in cost. With these savings, we can increase the battery with a capacity of 10 degrees, so as to meet the requirements of foreign countries. The cost of advanced hybrids is comparable.
6. The rational return of intelligent technology. In terms of intelligence, intelligence is a key technology for new energy vehicles, and it is also a very hot technology. But intelligent technology is undergoing a process of rational return. This is also in line with the law of the emergence of new technologies, that is, the bubble was very large at the beginning, and the participants were concentrated in the game. After rushing up, it will generally pass. After that, there will be a callback. After two or three callbacks, the normal development will be reached. state. At present, domestically-made driver assistance systems have begun mass production, mainly Hengrun Technology, and the total sales volume has reached more than 50,000 units. Another core technology is Lidar. Lidar is the core and the most expensive technology. Regarding lidar, it used to be mechanical, but now it is made of solid state. In this regard, domestic Hesai Technology has made relatively great progress and is at the current advanced level in the world.
In the future, we need to further improve the power consumption of pure electric vehicles, the energy efficiency of hybrid engines must be further improved, and the deep core components of fuel cells, including membrane rp graphite electrode suppliers, air compressors, and hydrogen. The bottle needs further breakthroughs. Of course, the safety of the power battery must be constantly grasped and continue to make breakthroughs. With the increase of specific energy, we need more advanced safety technology to guarantee it. Recently, there has been some progress in solid-state batteries in China. Although it is some preliminary results, it also shows that we are moving forward. In addition, the reducer of the integrated electric drive system and the reducer with a high reduction ratio are also what we need to pay attention to. For the core chips needed for intelligence, especially computing chips, we still need to make further breakthroughs.