The consumption mechanism of graphite electrodes

Pubdate: 06-11 2021

The consumption of graphite electrodes in electric furnace steelmaking is mainly related to the quality of the electrode itself, as well as the condition of the steelmaking furnace (such as new and old furnaces, whether there is a mechanical failure, whether continuous production, etc.) and steelmaking operations (such as smelting steel types, blowing steel, etc.). Oxygen time, charge conditions, etc.) are very important. Here only discuss the consumption of the graphite electrode itself, its consumption mechanism has the following aspects:

End consumption
Including the sublimation of the graphite material caused by the high temperature of the arc and the loss of the chemical reaction between the electrode end and the molten steel and slag. The high-temperature sublimation rate of the end mainly depends on the current density through the electrode, and secondly is related to the diameter of the side of the electrode after oxidation, and the end consumption is also related to whether the electrode is inserted into the molten steel to increase carbon.

Side oxidation
The chemical composition of the electrode is carbon. Under certain conditions, carbon will undergo oxidation reactions with air, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. The amount of oxidation on the side of the electrode is related to the unit oxidation rate and exposed area. In general, the introduction of oxygen electric furnace steelmaking on the side of the electrode and the consumption mechanism of the graphite electrode account for about 50% of the total consumption of the electrode. In recent years, in order to increase the smelting speed of the electric furnace, the frequency of oxygen blowing operations has been increased, resulting in an increase in the oxidation loss of the electrode. Frequent observation of the redness of the electrode trunk and the taper of the lower end during the steelmaking process is an intuitive way to measure the electrode’s oxidation resistance.

Stump loss
When the electrode is continuously used to the connection of the upper and lower electrodes, a small section of the electrode or the joint (ie the residue) will be separated due to the oxidation of the body and the penetration of the crack. The size of the stub loss is related to the shape of the joint, the internal structure of the electrode, the vibration, and the impact of the electrode column.

Surface peeling and falling blocks
In the process of smelting, the result is that the electrode has poor thermal vibration resistance due to the rapid cooling and heating.

Broken electrode
Including broken electrode torso and broken joints. Electrode breakage is related to the quality and processing coordination of graphite electrodes and joints, as well as steelmaking operations. The cause is often the focus of disputes between steel mills and electrode manufacturers.

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