graphite electrode electrolysis
Consumption mechanism of electric furnace steelmaking and graphite electrode electrolysis in electric furnace steelmaking
Modern steelmaking methods mainly include converter steelmaking method, open hearth steelmaking method and electric furnace steelmaking method. The open-hearth steelmaking method has been basically eliminated. The most fundamental difference between the electric furnace steelmaking method and the converter steelmaking method is that the electric furnace steelmaking method uses electric energy as the heat source, and the electric arc furnace steelmaking method is the most commonly used electric furnace steelmaking method. What we usually call electric furnace steelmaking mainly refers to electric arc furnace steelmaking, because other types of electric furnaces, such as induction electric furnaces, electroslag furnaces, etc., produce a small amount of steel.
Electric arc furnace steelmaking is an electric arc generated by the discharge between the electrode and the charge, which converts electrical energy into heat in the arc, and uses the direct action of radiation and electric arc to heat and melt metal and slag, and smelt steel and alloys of various compositions. Kind of steelmaking method. The consumption of graphite electrode electrolysis in electric furnace steelmaking is mainly related to the quality of the electrode itself, as well as the condition of the steelmaking furnace (such as new and old furnaces, whether there is mechanical failure, whether continuous production, etc.) and steelmaking operations (such as smelting steel types, Oxygen blowing time, charge conditions, etc.) are very important.
To discuss the consumption of graphite electrode electrolysis itself, its consumption mechanism has the following aspects:
1. End consumption includes the sublimation of the graphite material caused by the high temperature of the arc and the loss of the chemical reaction between the electrode end and the molten steel and slag. The high-temperature sublimation rate of the end mainly depends on the current density through the electrode, and secondly is related to the diameter of the side of the electrode after oxidation, and the end consumption is also related to whether the electrode is inserted into the molten steel to increase carbon.
2. The chemical composition of the side oxidation electrode is carbon. Under certain conditions, carbon will oxidize with air, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. The amount of oxidation on the side of the electrode is related to the unit oxidation rate and exposed area. In general, the amount of oxidation on the side of the electrode accounts for about 50% of the total consumption of the electrode. In recent years, in order to increase the smelting speed of the electric furnace, the frequency of oxygen blowing operations has been increased, resulting in an increase in the oxidation loss of the electrode. Frequent observation of the redness of the electrode trunk and the taper of the lower end during the steelmaking process is an intuitive way to measure the electrode’s oxidation resistance.
3. When the stub loss electrode is continuously used to the connection of the upper and lower electrodes, a small section of the electrode or joint (ie the residual body) will be separated due to the oxidation of the body and the penetration of the crack. The size of the stub loss is related to the shape of the joint, the internal structure of the electrode, the vibration and impact of the electrode column.
4. The surface peeling and falling pieces are the result of rapid cooling and heating during the smelting process, and the poor thermal vibration resistance of the electrode itself. 5. Electrode breakage includes electrode trunk breakage and joint breakage. The fracture of the electrode is related to the quality and processing cooperation of the graphite electrode electrolysis and the joint, and is also related to the steelmaking operation. The cause is often the focus of disputes between the steel mill and the electrode manufacturer.
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